I recently saw the excellent History Channel documentary “The Dark Ages”. It got me thinking about the broad sweep of history as it applies to Europe, and how such a big picture might be applied to the RPG setting.
Painting with the broadest possible brush strokes, and starting quite arbitrarily at 1 CE, the history of Europe can be broken down thusly (and bear in mind this is very rough; the time frames are necessarily arbitrary and the trends described within thumbnails):
Imperial Era (1st - 4th cen.): Highly developed urban areas, strong central authority, relative peace within national borders, relatively high standard of living and leisure time for most people. Travel for tourism, knowledge of foreign lands is widespread. Widespread trade and commerce. The Roman Empire is at its height, having brought prosperity and stability across the Mediterranean and northwest Europe.
Dark Ages (5th - 9th cen.): Fragmentation of central authority, depopulation of urban areas, lawlessness within and between national borders (where they exist), subsistence economy, little leisure for most individuals, widespread illiteracy, loss of knowledge. Knowledge becomes almost completely localized. Little trade. The Roman Empire has fallen, with most of its accomplishments and knowledge lost, and its former lands overrun by barbarians who set up their own petty kingdoms and short-lived empires on its ruins.
Middle Ages (10th - 14th cen.): Consolidation of central authority, growth of urban areas, peace within national borders, standard of living increases among certain classes, growth of literacy and rediscovery of knowledge. More stable nations form out of the chaos of the Dark Ages, and further incursions of barbarians and foreign powers are halted. Large-scale contact and trade with other cultures begins. The Roman Empire is seen as a Golden Era.
Renaissance (15th - 17th cen.): Highly developed urban areas, strong central authority, relative peace within national borders, relatively high standard of living and leisure time for most people. Travel for tourism. Discovery of new knowledge, including new (hitherto-unknown or inaccessible) territories. Commercial and cultural innovations thrive among the nations established during the Middle Ages, which form relatively stable cultural (if not political) units over centuries-long periods of time. Beginnings of nationalism.
This general schema could be applied to a generic FRPG setting very easily…
Imperial Era: Elvish Empire is at its height, having brought prosperity and stability across the continent.
Dark Ages: The Elvish Empire has fallen, with most of its accomplishments and knowledge lost, and its former lands overrun by humans who set up their own petty kingdoms and short-lived empires on its ruins.
Middle Ages: Stable human kingdoms form out of the chaos of the Dark Ages, and further incursions of humanoids and other foreign powers are halted. Large-scale trade and contact with other continents begins. The Elvish Empire is seen as a Golden Era.
I particularly like the idea that different races represent what on Earth were different human tribes or nationalities. Elves replace Romans. Humans replace Goths and Vandals. Orcs and Gnolls replace Vikings and Tartars. Not adapting their specific cultures, but taking their historical roles. There could even be an outpost of the faded Elvish Empire tucked away in a corner somewhere, taking the role of Byzantium. I could also envision Halflings being ubiquitous, playing the role that agriculturally-bound serfs did in historical Europe (I’ve always preferred a more Tolkien-esque version of Halflings as bucolic stay-at-homes than the more modern versions of D&D have presented).